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我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍(图文)

发布日期:2020-06-13 16:20:46     浏览次数:

 集成电路,即我们常说的 IC,它包括 CPU处理器,运算放大器,开关电源芯片等等,是一种电路器件,它通过纳米技术等手段,把大量的电路缩小后集成到一个芯片中。

现在由于受到国外封锁等原因,虽然我们的芯片设计能力已经很强了,但在制作过程中,由于没有高端光刻机,导致无法进行7纳米及以下的加工。同样,高端芯片也不能生产。这种情况使我们的芯片发展陷入困境。

就国内而言,我们目前的硅基半导体芯片制造工艺最高可达14纳米,与 ASML的3纳米光刻工艺相比,差距太大了。生产水平不高,2019年我们的芯片自给率低于20%。

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

许多人在想,是否有一种方法可以让我们跳过传统的芯片制造工艺,实现弯道超车。任正非在华为谈到光芯片的时候,提到了它,但目前光芯片研发的技术难度很大,过程很长,尤其是各个电路之间的匹配,短期内根本不可能实现。

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

5月26日碳基芯片诞生

在5月26日,由中国科学院院士彭练矛和张志勇教授组成的碳基纳米管晶片研发团队,花了近20年的时间,终于在新型碳基半导体领域取得了重大的研究成果,不仅突破了碳基半导体制造设备的瓶颈,而且实现了碳基纳米管晶体管晶片制造技术的全球领先地位。将我们的芯片带入碳基时代

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

碳基芯片功耗和成本更低,性能更强

碳基芯片相比于硅基半导体芯片制造成本更低,功耗更小,效率更高。彭练矛教授称,同等栅长的碳基芯片比硅基半导体功耗至少低三倍以上,运行速度也提高了三倍,未来或将广泛的应用在手机和我们的基站上面。

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

碳基芯片的发展

早在2年前,彭练矛院士和他的团队就已经制造出4吋5微米栅长的碳基芯片,相当于28nm硅基芯片的工艺,而今年发布的最新一代的硅基芯片性能相比之前至少提升了10倍,已经具备可以批量化生产的基础,并且已经和华为等国内众多芯片设计厂家对接。

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

碳基芯片面临的困难

投入资金量大,高端人才稀缺,工艺难度更高,彭练矛院士表示:

“现代芯片制备有上千个步骤,其中一步做不好,就没有好的产品。最后是一个系统优化的问题,材料、器件、芯片设计等密不可分。碳纳米管的制造乃至商用,面临最大的问题还是决心,国家的决心。若国家拿出支持传统集成电路技术的支持力度,加上产业界全力支持,3-5年应当能有商业碳基芯片出现,10年以内碳基芯片开始进入高端、主流应用。”

这个例子说明了要把它转化为工业产品,毕竟需要全国的主要芯片和生产厂家共同研发和配套,而且还要在系统上进行充分的优化,才能保证整个芯片正常工作,这个工作到可以批量投入使用,可能要3-5年。

 

我国碳基芯片新突破,或不再依赖光刻机,性能比上一代提升近10倍

 

总结一下

碳基芯片是我们弯道超车的重要手段,也是一个新的技术工艺。这是硅基芯片在达到瓶颈时的一个新的突破。未来芯片的道路上,我们将再也不用担心被卡脖子了。

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